Article | July 27, 2021
In the ‘new normal’ world, digitalization is the core reason to drive businesses to success. As a result, these emerging technologies have given rise to technical debt. Of course, technical debt has always been a part of every IT and non-IT organization. But the evolution of the IT world has made companies invest more time to think about reducing tech debt.
As the term consists of the word- debt, it gives a picture of being negative. Thus, technical debt is more or less like financial debt, but it also has good aspects.
In this article, we will talk all about technical debt management and ways to deal with it.
What Is Technical Debt?
When a code design is not neat, has disjointed data structures, and is of poor quality, it gives rise to technical debt.
If a code is designed in a hurry to meet strict deadlines, it may be written clumsily. For that particular period, the software may work perfectly well, but it starts bugging and stops working with time. And it becomes a difficult task to decode the coding and understand the problem as the code was not written neatly.
The accumulation of work due to short-term decisions, unrealistic deadlines, shortage of resources, or just ‘lazy work’ leads to technical debt.
Every organization has technical debt. Take note that this debt can never be zero. But the important part is to deal with technical debt management. It cannot be ‘paid off’ entirely but can be minimized and managed.
Types of Technical Debt
Various reasons lead to technical debt. Some are deliberate, and some are accidental. Whatever is the reason, if you notice any of the below actions implemented in your organization, consider it as a red flag. Then, identify the reasons for technical debt for precise technical debt management.
This is one primary reason that leads to technical debt. Of course, the coding should be precise and straightforward. But sometimes, due to limited time and resources, a complex architecture is created even for the simplest code. And if not mended with time, this leads to various problems along with technical debt.
Thus complexity in products, processes, and applications should be simplified with time.
This is also known as bit-rot. Software entropy occurs when developers write codes for the updates of the same software. As a result, the coding gains maximum complexity. And after a point, it gets unsolvable. Thus the software quality deteriorates, leading to errors and reduced usability.
The solution to this is refactoring, which we will discuss later in the article.
Accidental Tech Debt
This type of tech debt occurs when there is sudden evolution in technology. For example, if the code was simple and precise but not meant to be adapted or updated with the changing scenario, accidental technical debt occurs. It leads to a wastage of time and resources in the future.
Thus, this debt is resolved by dedicating time to update the code and system quickly.
Ways to Handle Technical Debt Management
When the engineering or developer’s team takes shortcuts to meet deadlines or finish the project early, it leads to more work in the long run. We understand that sometimes these demands are unavoidable, but the team needs to come back and resolve the issues to save the organization from technical debt.
For starters, an organization must identify the causes of technical debt and deal with them accordingly.
Here are some of the ways of technical debt management and how to manage them in the future.
Identify the Source
The best way to avoid and tackle technical debt is to identify the source. This can be done by having a conversation with the team as to why this debt occurred?
For example, if the IT team was asked to design healthcare software within two months due to the project's urgency, the team will say that the reason for complex coding was the time constraints.
As a result, you are identifying technical debt sources. They may have occurred due to time, resources, or system constraints. Once you identify the root cause, there is always a way to go back and solve the issue to avoid getting buried in technical debt. This is the first step towards technical debt management.
Track Technical Debt
You will be appalled to know that 7% of organizations track technical debt to minimize them. And they are a significant success.
Tracking technical debt is as important as identifying it. When a team keeps track of technical debt, it is easy for them to forecast the time and resources required to pay it off.
This is building a roadmap while writing code. It makes sure that the entire team is on the same page while developing the software. The benefit of this documentation is that whenever there is an update or an error wherein the entire code requires to be reworked, it gets easier for any developer to work on it. This is a precise way to prevent the tech-debt burden.
Maintain Agility & Testing
This technique is paving the way for technical debt management. However, developing agile software and maintaining its agility through time are two different things. To reduce the technical debt, you need to maintain software agility by updating it on a timely basis. But be sure to make this update process clean and qualitative.
Try not to skip testing of the software for whatsoever reasons. Testing of the software is essential to stop the build-up of technical debt. However, do not substitute manual testing for automated testing. It can prove to be a significant hurdle in the team’s agile process.
Dedicate time to understand and pay off technical debt. Even when you avoid errors and follow all the suitable approaches, there are chances of technical debt. Sometimes these may happen due to the client’s urgent demands or limited bandwidth to perform tasks. Whenever this happens, take out time and treat technical debt as a business problem and not a technical one. This is an intelligent way of handling technical debt management.
Refactoring means going back to the developed codes in haste for many reasons and cleansing them. This does not affect the external working of the code but cleans the code and makes it future-ready. Furthermore, such timely cleaning of codes reduces technical debt significantly.
How Is Technical Debt Good?
Technical debt is not always bad. Sometimes the code building is done in haste and works precisely the way it should. The updating of codes is also seamless. At such times technical debt is regarded as a good thing. This usually happens in applications that have simple processes.
Technical debt is also good in software that requires timely development and not bug fixes.
Technical debt is required to stay ahead in the competition. But see to it that it is tackled and minimized in the best possible way. Procrastination is the enemy of success. And this is highly true in the case of technical debt. It will get more expensive the longer you hold it.
So ensure that your team takes out regular time from their schedule for minimizing technical debt. Technical debt management will help your team to perform better, improve agility and deliver exceptional results.
Frequently Asked Questions
What drives tech debt?
Tech debt occurs when the team cannot write a clean code due to deadlines or limited resources. The tech debt worsens if the team does not go back and dedicate time to clean the code.
How do you handle tech debt?
There are specific ways to handle technical debt. These include:
Identifying the reasons that led to technical debt
Integrate metrics in your strategy
Knowing that tech debt is not always bad
What are the types of technical debt?
There are majorly three main types of technical debt.
Deliberate creation of complex software
Accidental tech debt
"name": "What drives tech debt?",
"text": "Tech debt occurs when the team cannot write a clean code due to deadlines or limited resources. The tech debt worsens if the team does not go back and dedicate time to clean the code."
"name": "How do you handle tech debt?",
"text": "There are specific ways to handle technical debt. These include:
Identifying the reasons that led to technical debt
Integrate metrics in your strategy
Knowing that tech debt is not always bad"
"name": "What are the types of technical debt?",
"text": "There are majorly three main types of technical debt.
Deliberate creation of complex software
Accidental tech debt"
Article | November 20, 2020
As smart machines, data, and algorithms usher in dramatic technological transformation, its global impact spans from cautious optimism to doomsday scenarios. Widespread transformation, displacement, and disaggregation of world labor markets is speculated in countries like India, with an estimated 600 million workforce by 2022, as well as the global labor market. Even today, we are witnessing the resurgence of 'hybrid' jobs where distinctive human abilities are paired with data and algorithms, and 'super' jobs that involve deep tech. Our historical response to such tectonic shifts and upheavals has been predictable so far - responding with trepidation and uncertainty in the beginning followed by a period of painful transition. Communities and nations that can sense and respond will be able to shape social, economic, and political order decisively. However, with general AI predictably coming of age by 2050-60, governments will need to frame effective policies to respond to their obligations to their citizens. This involves the creation of a new social contract between the individual, enterprise, and state for an inclusive and equitable society.
The present age is marked by automation, augmentation, and amplification of human talent by transformative technologies. A typical career may go through 15-20 transitions. And given the gig economy, the shelf-life of skills is rapidly shrinking. Many agree that for the next 30 years, the nature and the volume of jobs will get significantly redefined. So even as it is nearly impossible to gaze into the crystal ball 100 years later, one can take a shot at what jobs may emerge in the next 20-30 years given the present state. So here is a glimpse into the kind of technological changes the next generation might witness that will change the employment scenario:
RESTORATION OF BIODIVERSITY
Our biodiversity is shrinking frighteningly fast - for both flora and fauna. Extinct species revivalists may be challenged with restoring and reintegrating pertinent elements back into the natural environment. Without biodiversity, humanity will perish.
Medicine is rapidly getting personalized as genome sequencing becomes commonplace. Even today, Elon Musk's Neuralink is working on brain-machine interfaces. So you may soon be able to upload your brain onto a computer where it can be edited, transformed, and re-uploaded back into you. Anti-aging practitioners will be tasked with enhancing human life-spans to ensure we stay productive late into our twilight years. Gene sequencers will help personalize treatments and epigenetic therapists will manipulate gene expression to overcome disease and decay. Brain neurostimulation experts and augmentationists may be commonplace to ensure we are happier, healthier, and disease-free. In fact, happiness itself may get redefined as it shifts from the quality of our relationships to that between man-machine integration.
THE QUANTIFIED SELF
As more of the populace interact and engage with a digitized world, digital rehabilitators will help you detox and regain your sense of self, which may get inseparably intertwined with smart machines and interfaces.
DATA-LED VALUE CREATION
Data is exploding at a torrid pace and becoming a source of value-creation. While today's organizations are scrambling to create data lakes, future data-centers will be entrusted with sourcing high-value data, securing rights to it, and even licensing it to others. Data will increasingly create competitive asymmetries amongst organizations and nations. Data brokers will be the new intermediaries and data detectives, analysts, monitors or watchers, auditors, and frackers will emerge as new-age roles. Since data and privacy issues are entwined together, data regulators, ethicists, and trust professionals will thrive. Many new cyber laws will come into existence.
HEALING THE PLANET
As the world grapples with the specter of climate change, our focus on sustainability and clean energy will intensify. Our landfills are choked with both toxic and non-toxic waste. Plastic alone takes almost 1000 years to degrade, so landfill operators will use earthworm-like robots to help decompose waste and recoup precious recyclable waste. Nuclear fusion will emerge as the new source of clean energy, creating a broad gamut of engineers, designers, integrators, architects, and planners around it. We may even generate power in space. Since our oceans are infested with waste, a lot of initiatives and roles will emerge around cleaning the marine environment to ensure natural habitat and food security.
TAMING THE GENOME
As technologies like CRISPR and Prime-editing mature, we may see a resurgence of biohackers and programmable healthcare. Our health and nutrition may be algorithmically managed. CRISPR-like advancements will need a swathe of engineers, technicians, auditors, and regulators for genetically engineered health that may overcome a wide variety of diseases for longer life-expectancy.
THE RISE OF BOTS
Humanoid and non-humanoid robots will need entire workforce ecosystems around them spanning from suppliers, programmers, operators, and maintenance experts to ethicists and UI-designers. Smart robot psychologists will have to counsel them and ensure they are safe and friendly. Regulators may grant varying levels of autonomy to robots.
DATA LOADS THE GUN, CREATIVITY FIRES THE TRIGGER
Today's deep-learning Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) can create music like Mozart and paintings like Picasso. Such advancements will give birth to a wide array of AI-enhanced professionals, like musicians, painters, authors, quantum programmers, cybersecurity experts, educators, etc.
FROM AUGMENTATION TO AUTONOMY
Autonomous driving is about to mature in the next few years and will extend to air and space travel. Safety will exceed human capabilities and we may soon reach a state of diminishing returns where we will employ fewer humans to prevent mishaps and unforeseen occurrences. This industry will need supportive command center managers, traffic analyzers, fleet managers, and people to ensure onboarding experience.
BLOCKCHAIN BECOMES PERVASIVE
Blockchain will create a lot of jobs for its mainstream and derivative applications. Even though most of its present applications are in Financial Services, Supply Chain, and Asset Management industries, very soon its adoption and integration will be a lot more expansive. Engineers, designers, UI/UX experts, analysts, auditors, and regulators will be required to manage blockchain-related applications. With Crypto being one of its better-known applications, a lot of transaction specialists, miners, insurers, wealth managers, and regulators will be needed. Crypto exchanges will come under the purview of the regulatory framework.
3D PRINTING TURNS GAME-CHANGER
Additive manufacturing, also popularly called 3D printing, will mature in its precision, capabilities, and market potential. Lab-grown, 3D-printed food will be part of our regular diet. Transplantable organs will be generated using stem cell research and 3D printing. Amputees and the disabled will adopt 3D-printed limbs and prosthetics. Its applications for high-precision reconstructive surgery are already commonplace. Pills are being 3D printed as we speak. So again, we are looking at 3D printers, operators, material scientists, pharmacists, construction experts, etc.
THE COLONIZATION OF OUTER SPACE
Amazon's Blue Origin and Elon Musk's SpaceX signal a new horizon. As space tech gets into a new trajectory, a new breed of commercial space pilots, mission planners, launch managers, cargo experts, ground crew, experience designers, etc. will be required. Since we have ravaged the limited resources of our planet already, mankind will need to venture into asteroid mining for rare and precious metals. This will need scouts and surveyors, meteorologists, remote bot operators, remotely managed factories, and whatnot.
THE HYPER-CONNECTED WORLD
By 2020, we already have anywhere between 50-75 billion connected devices. By 2040, this will likely swell to more than 100 trillion sensors that will spew out a dizzying volume of real-time data ready for analytics and AI. A complete IoT system as we know it is aware, autonomous, and actionable, just like a self-driving car. Imagine the number of data modelers, sensor designers and installers, signal architects and engineers that will be needed. Home automation will be pervasive and smart medicines, implants, and wearables will be the norms of the day.
DRONES USHER IN DISRUPTION
Unmanned aerial and underwater drones are already becoming ubiquitous for applications in aerial surveillance, delivery, and security. Countries are awakening to their potential as well as possibilities of misuse. Command centers, just like that for space travel, will manage them as countries rush to put in a regulatory framework around them. An army of designers, programmers, security experts, traffic flow optimizers will harness their true potential.
SHIELDING YOUR DATA
With data come cyber threats, data breaches, cyber warfare, cyber espionage, and a host of other issues. The more data-dependent and connected the world is, the bigger the problem of cybersecurity will be. The severity of the problem will increase manifold from the current issues like phishing, spyware, malware, viruses and worms, ransomware, DoS/ DDoS attacks, hacktivism, and cybersecurity will indeed be big business. The problem is that threats are increasing 10X faster than investments in this space and the interesting thing is that it is a lot more about audits, governance, policies, and compliance than technology alone.
FOOD-TECH COMES OF AGE
As the world population grows to 9.7 billion people in 2050, cultured food and lab-grown meat will hit our tables to ensure food security. Entire food chains and value delivery networks will see an unprecedented change. Agriculture will be transformed with robotics, IoT, drones, and the food-tech sector will take off in a big way.
QUANTUM COMPUTING SOLVES INTRACTABLE PROBLEMS
Finally, while the list is very long, let’s touch upon the advent of qubits, or Quantum computing. With its ability to break the best encryption on the planet, the traditional asymmetric encryption, public key infrastructure, digital envelopes, and digital certificates in use today will be rendered useless. Bring in the quantum programmers, analysts, privacy and trust managers, health monitors, etc.
As we brace for the world that looms large ahead of us, the biggest enabler that will be transformed itself will be Education 4.0. Education will cease to be a phase in your life. Life-long interventions will be needed to adapt, impart, and shape the skills of individuals that are ready for the future of work. More power to the people!
Article | March 2, 2020
When people discuss artificial intelligence, they're often interested in how it's helping businesses streamline complex business processes and make customer service interactions more interactive. Or people think AI is a force of evil that will replace humans one day. But AI is actually doing lots of good. It's solving some of the world's biggest problems, whether it's achieving medical marvels, fighting rhino poachers, or helping police catch child abusers.